Thursday, May 3, 2012

Leading producer countries of cotton


Leading producer countries of cotton

Top ten cotton producers—2011
(480-pound bales)
 People's Republic of China33.0 million bales
 India27.0 million bales
 United States18.0 million bales
 Pakistan10.3 million bales
 Brazil9.3 million bales
 Uzbekistan4.6 million bales
 Australia4.2 million bales
 Turkey2.8 million bales
 Turkmenistan1.6 million bales
 Greece1.4 million bales

The five leading exporters of cotton in 2011 are (1) the United States, (2) India, (3) Brazil, (4) Australia, and (5) Uzbekistan. The largest nonproducing importers are Korea, Taiwan, Russia, Hong Kong and Japan.
In India, the states of Maharashtra (26.63%), Gujarat (17.96%) and Andhra Pradesh (13.75%) and also Madhya Pradesh are the leading cotton producing states, these states have a predominantly tropical wet and dry climate.
In Pakistan, cotton is grown predominantly in the provinces of Punjab and Sindh. The leading area of cotton production is the south Punjab, comprising the areas around Bahawalpur, Multan, and Melsi. Faisalabad is a leader in textiles within Pakistan. Punjab has a tropical wet and dry climate throughout the year therefore enhancing the growth of cotton.
In the United States, the state of Texas led in total production as of 2004, while the state of California had the highest yield per acre.

[edit]Fair trade

Cotton is an enormously important commodity throughout the world. However, many farmers in developing countries receive a low price for their produce, or find it difficult to compete with developed countries.

This has led to an international dispute (see United States – Brazil cotton dispute):
On 27 September 2002, Brazil requested consultations with the US regarding prohibited and actionable subsidies provided to US producers, users and/or exporters of upland cotton, as well as legislation, regulations, statutory instruments and amendments thereto providing such subsidies (including export credits), grants, and any other assistance to the US producers, users and exporters of upland cotton. On 8 September 2004, the Panel Report recommended that the United States "withdraw" export credit guarantees and payments to domestic users and exporters, and "take appropriate steps to remove the adverse effects or withdraw" the mandatory price-contingent subsidy measures.
In addition to concerns over subsidies, the cotton industries of some countries are criticized for employing child labor and damaging workers' health by exposure to pesticides used in production. TheEnvironmental Justice Foundation has campaigned against the prevalent use of forced child and adult labor in cotton production in Uzbekistan, the world's third largest cotton exporter. The international production and trade situation has led to "fair trade" cotton clothing and footwear, joining a rapidly growing market for organic clothing, fair fashion or "ethical fashion". The fair trade system was initiated in 2005 with producers from Cameroon, Mali and Senegal.

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