Tuesday, December 27, 2011

Agriculture in Madhya Pradesh

Population 6,03,85,118 (Census 2001)
Male 3,14,56,873
Female 2,89,28,245
Scheduled Tribes 96,82,000 (19.94 %)
Scheduled Castes 74,78,000 (15.40 %)
Area (in sq. kms.) 308,000
Revenue Divisions 9
Districts 45
Tehasils 260
Development Blocks 313
Populated villages 51,806
Gram Panchayats 21,999
Literacy 64.11 percent
Male 76.80 percent
Female 50.28 percent
Density of Population 196 per sq. kms.
Male-Female Ratio 1000 : 933

Capital Bhopal
Area ('000 sq.km ) 308
Population('000 in 1991) 66,181
Principal Languages Hindi
Females per 1000 males (1991) 931
Literacy rate (1991) 44.2
Ratio of urban population (1991) 23.2
Net Domestic Product (Rs. million at current prices in 1992-93) 323,070
Per Capita Income (Rs. at current prices in 1992-93) 4,725
Recorded Forest Area ('000 sq. km) 155.4

Landlocked in the central part of the country, it is bounded by the states of Rajasthan to the northwest, Uttar Pradesh to the north, Chhattisgarh to the east and Maharashtra to the south, and Gujarat to the west.

Madhya Pradesh is the second largest state and ranks seventh in population. The State is primarily an agriculture State. About 73% population of the state is rural, which is directly or indirectly depends on agriculture. Thus Agriculture Sector is the main Stay of the State economy. The Agriculture and allied services contributes about 44% share in state economy and 78% of its working force is directly engaged in Agriculture. Thus Agriculture sector forms the backbone of MP economy.

Madhya Pradesh is having a geographical area of 30.75 million hectares, which is divided into 45 district of the state and 9 revenue divisions. The state has 313 development blocks which are the units for development activities. The forests occupies in the States 8.49 million hectares which is 27.2 % of the Geographical area of the state where as the cultivated area is about 49 %. The major perennial rivers of the State namely Mahi, Narmada, Tapti, Chambal, Betwa, Sone, Wainganga, Ken., and Pench Originate in Madhya Pradesh and flow to the seven bordering states

Madhya Pradesh has a topography that is crossed from north to south by plains separated by upland areas. The state has three main seasons: winter (November through February), summer (March through May), and the monsoon season (June through September). During the winter average temperatures range from 10° to 27° C (50° to 81° F). Summers are hot, with an average temperature of 29° C (85° F) and a high temperature that at times reaches 48° C (118° F). During the monsoon season temperatures average 19° to 30° C (66° to 86°). Madhya Pradesh receives as average annual rainfall of about 1200 mm (nearly 50 in), of which 90 percent falls during the monsoon season. The capital of the state is Bhopal.


The history of Madhya Pradesh goes back to the time of Ashoka, the great Mauryan ruler. Major portion of Central India formed part of the Gupta Empire (300-550 AD). In the first half of the seventh century it was part of domains of famous emperor Harsha. The close of tenth century was a period of confusion. In the early eleventh century the muslims entered central India, First Mahmud of Ghazni & then Mohammad Gori who incorporated certain parts with Sultanate of Delhi. It also formed part of Mughal Empire with the rise of Maratha's. Till the death of Madhoji Scindia in 1794, Marathas ruled supreme in Central India, but after that independent & smaller states came into being. The disintegrated smaller states paved way for British suzerainty. Some great women rulers like Rani Ahilyabai Holkar of Indore, Gond queen Rani Kamla devi & Rani Durgawati have carved a nick for them in history.

When India became independent in 1947, the British Indian province of Central Provinces and Berar formed Madhya Pradesh. Boundary changes followed; the state of Chhattisgarh was carved out of Madhya Pradesh.

Society and Culture

Madhya Pradesh has at least four agro-climatic zones, and thus, has the most interesting mix of people and ways of life. It is home to about 40 percent of India's tribal population. There are three distinct tribal groups in the state. The largest chunk is formed by the Gonds, who once ruled a major part of the state and after whom Gondwana, the central portion of the state is known. Western Madhya Pradesh is inhabited by the Bhils, a colourful group of warriors and huntsmen. Eastern Madhya Pradesh is dominated by the Oraons, most of whom have now turned Christians.

Hindi is the most widely spoken language though Marathi is also widespread. Urdu, Oriya, Gujarati and Punjabi are each spoken by sizeable numbers. The Bhils speak Bhili and the Gonds Gondi, the independent in origin of the Indo-European and Dravidian language groups.

The Gonds, Bhils and Banjaras have several vibrant tribal dances like Phag (a sword dance), Lota (dance by women full of water on their heads), and other stilt dances. Textiles are important but Madhya Pradesh also has a strong traditional village handicraft industry. Handloom Chanderi and Maheshwar silks are especially sought after. The tribal population produce attractive handicrafts.

Among the temples known throughout the world for their erotic art are those at Khajuraho in the Chhatarpur district in the north of the state; dating from AD 1000, they were built by the Chandella kings. The temples at Gwalior and in its vicinity should also be mentioned. The palaces and mosque at Mandu (near Dhar), the majestic Bandhogarh fort built in the 14th century, and the Gwalior fort--perhaps the most impressive of the residences of the former princes of Madhya Pradesh--represent other notable architectural achievements.

The state has several well-known annual cultural events, such as Kalidas Samaroh (for performing and fine arts) in Ujjain, Tansen Samaroh (music) in Gwalior, and a dance festival in Khajuraho, where artists from all over India participate. In Bhopal there is a unique multifaceted cultural complex, the Bharat Bhavan, which functions as a meeting ground for artists from various fields. Located along the Bhopal Lake, this sprawling complex houses a museum, a library, an open-air theatre, and a number of conference halls. The state has important yearly religious melas (gatherings) in Mandasor and Ujjain, as well as the religious Dashhara festival in the Bastar region

Economy and Infrastructure

Agriculture is the basis of Madhya Pradesh's economy. Less than half of the land area is cultivable, however, and its distribution is quite uneven because of variations in topography, rainfall, and soils. The main cultivated areas are found in the Chambal valley, the Malwa Plateau, the Rewa Plateau, and the Chhattisgarh Plain. The Narmada valley, covered with river-borne alluvium, is another fertile area.

The most important crops are rice, wheat, sorghum ( jowar), corn (maize), pulses (legumes such as peas, beans, or lentils), and peanuts (groundnuts). Rice is grown principally in the east, where there is more rainfall, while in western Madhya Pradesh wheat and sorghum are more important. The state is the largest soybean producer in India. Other crops include linseed, sesame, sugarcane, and cotton, as well as inferior millets, which are grown in hilly areas. The state is a large producer of opium (in the western district of Mandasor, near Rajasthan) and marijuana (in the southwestern district of Khandwa [East Nimar]).

Madhya Pradesh is rich in minerals, though these resources have not yet been fully exploited. There are large reserves of coal and important deposits of iron ore, manganese ore, bauxite, limestone, dolomite, copper, fireclay, and china clay. Diamond reserves at Panna are of particular interest.

The major industries of the state are electronics, telecommunications, petrochemicals, food processing and automobiles. The state has also taken a lead in the production of cement. The state is also famous for its traditional handicrafts and handlooms manufactured at Chanderi and Maheshwar.

The state is well endowed with potential hydroelectric power. Main hydroelectric projects (jointly developed with other states) are the Babanthadi with Maharashtra, the Ban Sagar with Bihar and Uttar Pradesh, the Chambal Valley with Rajasthan, the Narmada Sagar with Gujarat and Rajasthan, and the Rajghat and Urmil with Uttar Pradesh. The Hasdeo Bango, Bargi, and Birsinghapur thermal power projects are also within the state. The Narmada Sagar project has been a source of controversy because of its potential for damaging the environment.

In comparison with other Indian states, Madhya Pradesh is well served with transport and communications facilities. The main railroads that pass through the state were originally laid down to connect the ports of Madras, Bombay, and Calcutta with their hinterlands. Important railway junctions include Bhopal, Ratlam, Khandwa, Bilaspur, and Katni. Also connecting the state with other parts of India are airports at Bhopal, Gwalior, Indore, Raipur, Jabalpur, Rewa, Bilaspur, and Khajuraho, as well as several national highways.

Major Produce of Madhya Pradesh
Cereals : Wheat, Rice, Pulses, Jowar.
Oilseeds : Soyabean, Niger, Mustard.
Vegetables : Green Peas, Cauliflower, Okra, Tomato, Potato, Eggplant, Onion, Gourd.
Fruits : Mango, Guava, Orange, Melon, Papaya, Banana.
Spices : Garlic, Coriander, Ginger, Tur
Flower : Tube Rose, Roses, Marigold, Gladiolus


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